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See full list on HOLISTIC TRAINING REVOLUTION (HTR) is the ultimate, first of its kind, all-in-one system that not only incorporates training and nutrition, but also mindfulness and meditation to achieve the best possible results. The French and Russian revolutions followed this course of development, as did the Islamic revolution in Iran in the late 20th century. A strictly political revolution, independent of social transformation, does not possess the same pattern of prerevolutionary and postrevolutionary events.

The Age of Revolution was in many ways a backlash response to the Absolutism that existed in Europe. People began understanding they had a voice and wanted to participate in making their lives better. The Age of Revolutions covers many revolutions within an 80 year time period. In that time countries saw political and social change.

Objective: To understand the causes, course, and effects of revolutions on the region and people. In particular, students will be able to identify the major developments of Latin American history during the 19th century including the wars for independence, the influence and ideas of revolutionaries such as Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin, the influence of the American and French Revolutions, and the persistent role of economic and social stratification in the region

Follow the steps below and answer the questions. You may need to read or watch a video to answer the questions. Take a moment to look at the rubric under evaluation and see what you need to do to get a grade.

1. Write the definition for revolution- IN YOUR OWN WORDS

Part 1: French Revolution:

1. French Revolution Crash Course

Watch the John Green Crash Course on the French Revolution and answer the following questions.

a. How is the French Revolution seen as different from the American?

b. Who was the leader of France at the time of the revolution?

c. What was the main cause of the revolution? Include the 3 estates!

d. What was the name of their constitution?

e. Why does John Green argue it is important to learn about the French Revolution? Why does he think it was more significant than the American Revolution.

2. How does this political cartoon explain the French Revolution? Who is represented in the picture (label the three estates) and what are they saying about these individuals? The caption read ' One hopes this will end soon'


3. Analyze the following cartoon and what it says about the French Revolution. Try to tie it to the Stages of Revolutions from Crane Brinton's The Anatomy of Revolution

4. Read about the music of the French Revolution and listen to some of the music by using the tabs on the right of this page. What do you notice about the music? What do the commentators say about how the revolution shaped the music?

5. Below is the image of the Declaration of the Rights of Man. Use the image and this copy of the primary source to answer the following.

a. Article 11 describes the right to free speech. How does this right differ from the freedom of speech guaranteed by the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution?

b. What does this document say regarding taxation?

c. Which people in France still were not equal despite the declaration? Explain your answer.

d. Analyze the content of this declaration. What do you strongly agree or disagree with? Explain your answer.


Background - Settling the New World

1. Based upon the following maps and this interview, explain what life in the Americas was like prior to European exploration and compare it to the prevailing mythology.

2. Based upon the following map of the western hemisphere in 1800, which European empires held colonies in the new world? Which empire held the most territory?


3. Review: Considering what we know about mercantilism explain the goal of Europe's overseas conquests.

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4. Explain how the Spanish treated the Native American people by reading here or watching this video.

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5. Based upon this reading explain the social hierarchy in Latin America pre-revolution.

6. How did this social separation of classes resemble the environment leading up to the American and French Revolutions? Why might this have contributed to revolution?


Causes of Revolution in Latin America

1. Based upon your analysis of these images and this article, explain what caused the Latin American revolutions.


Haitian Revolution

1. Click here to read about the Haitian independence movement.

a. Who was Toussaint L'Ouverture?

b. What did he accomplish?

c. How was he betrayed and what happened to him?

2. After Toussaint's death, one of his generals, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, took over the fight. With much of Napoleon's army distracted by the wars in Europe, Dessalines declared the colony, now Haiti, an independent country on January 1, 1804. Click here to read about Dessalines. Or try this one

a,. Haiti became the world's first ____________?

b. What were some problems the new nation faced after its founding?

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3. Watch John Greens video on Haiti as a recap:

While watching make note of three things he says that teach you something or stand out to you?


PART IV: South America

Once revolution began in South American including Venezuela and Argentina, the people seeking independence needed exceptional leaders with a unified vision in order to defeat the much more powerful Spanish and loyalist armies. Luckily Venezuela, which declared independence in 1811, was home to Simon Bolivar, a brilliant military mind and experienced statesman who had spent time in Europe and witnessed the successful implementation of democratic principles in the United States on a trip in 1807. To the South, Jose de San Martin led the forces of Argentina when it declared independence in 1816. Martin's more reserved demeanor made him a hero to his troops despite having spent his youth in Europe.

1. To better understand the role Bolivar played in the Latin American revolutionary movement, read (hudsonhs/hawks) and watch the following resources.

a. List two characteristics or experiences of Simon Bolivar and explain how they made him a good leader.

b. Why is Bolivar called the George Washington of South America?

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2. Read here and explain what role San Martin played in the Latin American revolutionary movement. (hudsonhs/hawks)

3. Read here and explain the course of events leading to Latin American independence. (hudsonhs/hawks)

4. Read here and learn of the course of events leading to Mexican independence. Explain how Mexico differed from other Latin American independence movements.

PART V: Brazilian Independence

1. Brazil's road to independence was the most peculiar. After reading this article, explain how Brazil obtained independence from Portugal.

2. Recap with John Greens Video on the Latin American Revolutions.

Write 3 observations or things you learn from the video.

The right technology, Max Boot writes, can give armies an edge that makes a country dominant for centuries. But, he warns, any advantage is fragile, and dominant nations sit on a precarious perch. If they stop innovating, they will lose their advantage, and often innovation means discarding the very weapons and tactics that have made them supreme. History is filled with has-been hegemons who were unwilling to make the leap.

In his new book, 'War Made New' (Gotham Books, 624 pages, $35), Mr. Boot, a senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations, weaves this theme through the past 500 years of politics, society, and technology, asking how do revolutions in military affairs occur? More important, why are some countries able to use such revolution to their advantage, while others fail?

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The answer is often the difference between victory and defeat — and whether a nation continues to dominate the world or is conquered. Mr. Boot believes military revolutions depend as much on an adaptive culture as on new technology.

Revolutionsmr Volkmar

Military organizations are the quintessential bureaucracy. Few are as orthodox. Indeed, Mr. Boot says , the military organizations that have been most successful in the past are the ones that find it hardest to change. When an army has trounced its opponents, it's hard to make the case for discarding the weapons and tactics that made the trouncing possible — and convince legislators and voters to pay the cost.

Mr. Boot's history of military evolution extends through four successive phases for weapons and tactics since 1500. The first was the utilization of gunpowder. The second was the adoption of conscript armies equipped with assembly line-produced weapons and transported by railroads.The third was mass mechanization with trucks, tanks, aircraft, and missiles. And the fourth was the Information Revolution, marked by the introduction of electronic sensors, guidance systems, and communications networks.

Mr. Boot analyzes a dozen battles over five centuries using this framework.He argues that, when an army has adopted a new technology successfully, it was because it had a visionary who promoted it and overcame the natural inertia of the military establishment. Usually, according to Mr. Boot, successful visionaries are military officers who can devote their careers to the cause. They come out of the very culture they are trying to change.Civilians lack credibility, cannot penetrate the culture, and usually lack the longevity to shape budgets extending over years or even decades.

Successful revolutions, Mr. Boot says, require making changes without threatening the military institution itself.This requires a deft touch.Act too aggressively, and the system rejects you like an antigen. Act too timidly, and you get coopted, delayed, or watered down.

So, for example, the flamboyant, insubordinate, uncompromising Brigadier General Billy Mitchell got headlines for promoting aviation, but essentially failed. He had a fraction of the impact of the more deliberate, diplomatic — and less known — Rear Admiral William Moffett.

Moffett understood that one could not simply sell off the battleships and armies and buy airplanes. Rather, one had to integrate aviation into the U.S. military as a whole, and this required selling the idea to the rest of the defense community. This kind of integration is often a harder and more complex a task than evangelism, but that is precisely Mr. Boot's point.

Quoting Andrew Marshall, the Pentagon's guru on military revolutions, Mr. Boot observes military transformation 'is not about how to eliminate current weapons.'Armies need to keep whatever currently works, fill gaps in capabilities, while also developing new weapons and tactics to keep them a step ahead of the competition. Transformation is not just change, but change that maintains an advantage.

Some will argue with several of the examples Mr. Boot uses to make his argument. For example, he criticizes the military reformers of the 1980s, saying that, if they had had their way, America would have lacked the technological edge that proved decisive in the 1991 Gulf War. He cites the Air Force's F-15 and F-16 fighters as examples. But in reality, these aircraft — the lightweight, agile F-16 in particular — were famously successful cases in which reformers pushed the military establishment out of complacency.

Also, Mr. Boot sometimes underestimates the random luck of the draw in explaining some events. He notes, for example, that Moffett built two large aircraft carriers in the 1920s using converted battle cruisers, in the process overtaking the British in naval aviation technology. He fails to note that these two carriers were available only because the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty prevented America from completing them as originally designed.

Had this not occurred, Moffett would never have had his opportunity. (Britain did not have comparable ships that it could have used for such a conversion.) Often opportunity is the driver of innovation.

But these are minor quibbles. Mr. Boot is ably filling the role occupied for many years by John Keegan, the famed British author of classics like 'The Face of War' and 'The Mask of Command.' Both use a similar approach: Illustrate broad military trends with specific examples, and embed the analysis in an entertaining historical narrative accompanied by commentary.

Fans of Mr. Keegan's will enjoy Mr. Boot. Few writers today equal the sheer volume of commentary he generates on defense affairs. In addition to this book (his second major work in four years), Mr. Boot also writes a weekly column and occasional pieces for the Weekly Standard. Since military revolutions today depend on an informed public, this is a good thing.

Mr. Berkowitz is a research fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University.