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For the rules governing commercial aviation, see Freedoms of the air.

The Five Freedoms outline five aspects of animal welfare under human control. They were developed in response to a 1965 UK Government report on livestock husbandry, and were formalized in 1979 press statement by the UK Farm Animal Welfare Council.[1] The Five Freedoms have been adopted by professional groups including veterinarians,[2] and organizations including the World Organisation for Animal Health,[3] the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals,[4] and the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.[5]

Current compact[edit]

The five freedoms as currently expressed are:[1]

  1. Freedom from hunger or thirst by ready access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vigour
  2. Freedom from discomfort by providing an appropriate environment including shelter and a comfortable resting area
  3. Freedom from pain, injury or disease by prevention or rapid diagnosis and treatment
  4. Freedom to express (most) normal behaviour by providing sufficient space, proper facilities and company of the animal's own kind
  5. Freedom from fear and distress by ensuring conditions and treatment which avoid mental suffering


In 1965, the UK government commissioned an investigation, led by Professor Roger Brambell, into the welfare of intensively farmed animals, partly in response to concerns raised in Ruth Harrison's 1964 book, Animal Machines. The Brambell Report stated 'An animal should at least have sufficient freedom of movement to be able without difficulty, to turn round, groom Itself, get up, lie down and stretch its limbs'.[6] This short recommendation became known as Brambell's Five Freedoms.

As a result of the report, the Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Committee was created to monitor the livestock production sector. In July 1979, this was replaced by the Farm Animal Welfare Council, and by the end of that year, the five freedoms had been codified into the recognisable list format.[7]


  1. ^ ab'Five Freedoms'. Farm Animal Welfare Council / Farm Animal Welfare Committee. Archived from the original on 2012-10-07.
  2. ^'Code of Good Veterinary Practice'(PDF). Federation of Veterinarians of Europe.
  3. ^'Introduction to the recommendations for animal welfare'. World Organisation for Animal Health.
  4. ^'Animal welfare worldwide'. RSPCA.
  5. ^'ASPCA'. ASPCA: Five Freedoms. American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). Retrieved 2 October 2015.
  6. ^Brambell, Roger (1965), Report of the Technical Committee to Enquire Into the Welfare of Animals Kept Under Intensive Livestock Husbandry Systems, Cmd. (Great Britain. Parliament), H.M. Stationery Office, pp. 1–84
  7. ^'Press Statement'(PDF). Farm Animal Welfare Council. 1979-12-05. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2012-10-07.
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In 1966 (photo by Duffy)
22 March 1912
Died18 January 1985 (aged 72)
Years active1930–84
Mary Josephine Hall
(m. 1948; div. 1955)

Henry Wilfrid Brambell (22 March 1912 – 18 January 1985) was an Irish television and film actor and comedian best known for his role in the television series Steptoe and Son. He also performed alongside the Beatles in their film A Hard Day's Night, playing Paul McCartney's fictional grandfather.

Early life[edit]

Brambell was born in Dublin, the youngest of three sons born to Henry Lytton Brambell (1870-1937), a cashier at the Guinness Brewery, and his wife, Edith Marks (1879-1965), a former opera singer. The family surname was changed from 'Bramble' by Wilfrid's grandfather Frederick William Brambell. His two older brothers were Frederick Edward Brambell (1905-1980) and James Christopher Marks 'Jim' Brambell (1907-1992).

His first appearance was as a child, entertaining the wounded troops during the First World War. After leaving school, he worked part-time as a reporter for The Irish Times and part-time as an actor at the Abbey Theatre before becoming a professional actor for the Gate Theatre. He also did repertory at Swansea, Bristol and Chesterfield.[1] In the Second World War he joined the British military forces entertainment organisation ENSA.

Acting career[edit]

Brambell had roles in film and television films from 1947, first appearing in Odd Man Out as a tram passenger (uncredited) in 1947. His television career began during the 1950s, when he was cast in small roles in three Nigel Kneale/Rudolph Cartier productions for BBC Television: as a drunk in The Quatermass Experiment (1953), as both an old man in a pub and later a prisoner in Nineteen Eighty-Four (1954) and as a tramp in Quatermass II (1955). All of these roles earned him a reputation for playing old men, though he was only in his forties at the time. He appeared as Bill Gaye in the 1962 Maurice Chevalier/Hayley Mills picture, In Search of the Castaways. He was heard in the original soundtrack of The Canterbury Tales, which was one of the quickest selling West End soundtrack albums of all time. He also released two 45-rpm singles, 'Second Hand'/'Rag Time Ragabone Man', that played on his Steptoe and Son character, followed in 1971 by 'Time Marches On', his tribute to the Beatles, with whom he had worked in 1964 (and met many times). It featured a Beatles-esque guitar riff with Brambell reciting words about the Beatles splitting up. Download album lagu mp3. The B-side was 'The Decimal Song' which, at the time of Britain adopting decimal currency, was politically charged. He played Paul McCartney's fictitious grandfather in the Beatles' 1964 film, A Hard Day's Night.[2]

He was featured in many prominent theatre roles. In 1966 he played Ebenezer Scrooge in a musical version of A Christmas Carol. This was adapted for radio the same year and appeared on Radio 2 on Christmas Eve. Brambell's booming baritone voice surprised many listeners: he played the role straight, true to the Dickens original, and not in the stereotype Albert Steptoe character. In 1971, he starred in the premiere of Eric Chappell's play, The Banana Box, in which he played Rooksby. This part was later renamed Rigsby for the TV adaptation called Rising Damp, with Leonard Rossiter replacing Brambell in the role. Wilfrid also played the part of an Irish widower in the film Holiday on the Buses, the character in question started a close friendship with Stan Butler's mother Mabel.

Steptoe and Son, Beatles[edit]

It was this ability to play old men that led to his casting in his best remembered role as Albert Steptoe, the irascible father in Steptoe and Son (his son Harold was played by Harry H. Corbett), a man who, when the series began, was said to be in his sixties, even though Brambell was only aged 50 in 1962 (thirteen years older than Corbett). The series began as a pilot on the BBC's Comedy Playhouse, and its success led to the commissioning of a full series. It ran from 1962 to 1974 including a five-year hiatus. A constant thread throughout the series was Albert being referred to by Harold as a 'dirty old man', for example when he was eating pickled onions while taking a bath, and retrieving dropped ones from the bathwater. There were also two feature film spin-offs, a stage show and an American incarnation entitled Sanford and Son, some episodes of which were almost exact remakes of the original British scripts.[citation needed]

The success of Steptoe and Son made Brambell a high-profile figure on British television, and earned him the supporting role of Paul McCartney's grandfather in the Beatles' first film, A Hard Day's Night (1964). A running joke is made throughout the film of his character being 'a very clean old man', in contrast to his being referred to as a 'dirty old man' in Steptoe and Son. In real life, he was indeed nothing like his Steptoe persona, being dapper and well-spoken. In 1965, Brambell told the BBC that he did not want to do another series of Steptoe and Son, and in September that year he went to New York to appear in the Broadway musical Kelly at the Broadhurst Theatre. However, it closed after just a single performance.[citation needed]

Apart from his role as the older Steptoe, Brambell achieved recognition in many films. His performance in The Terence Davies Trilogy won him critical acclaim, far greater than any achieved for Steptoe and Son.[3] Although he appears throughout the full 24-minute piece, Brambell does not speak a single word.

Personal and later life[edit]

After the final series of Steptoe and Son was made, in 1974, Brambell had some guest roles in films and on television. He and Harry H. Corbett also undertook a tour of Australia in 1977 in a Steptoe and Son stage show. In 1982 Brambell appeared on the BBC's television news paying tribute to Corbett after the latter's death from a heart attack. In 1983 Brambell appeared in Terence Davies's film Death and Transfiguration, playing a dying elderly man who finally comes to terms with his homosexuality.[4]

In 2002 Channel 4 broadcast a documentary film, When Steptoe Met Son, about the off-screen life of Brambell and his relationship with Corbett. The film claimed that the two men detested each other and were barely on speaking terms after the Australia tour. The rift was apparently caused in part by Brambell's alcoholism and led to the two men leaving the country on separate aircraft. This claim is disputed by the writers of Steptoe and Son, Ray Galton and Alan Simpson, who were unaware of any hatred or conflict.[5] Corbett's nephew released a statement in which he claimed that the actors did not hate each other: 'We can categorically say they did not fall out. They were together for nearly a year in Australia, went on several sightseeing trips together, and left the tour at the end on different planes because Harry was going on holiday with his family, not because he refused to get on the same plane. They continued to work together after the Australian tour on radio and adverts.'[6]

Brambell was homosexual[7][8] at a time when it was impossible for public figures to be openly gay, not least because male homosexual acts were illegal in England and Wales until 1967. In 1962 he was arrested in a toilet in Shepherd's Bush for persistently importuning and given a conditional discharge.[9][10]

In 2012 it emerged that Brambell had been accused of abusing two boys aged 12–13 during the 1970s in Jersey. One of the boys was from the Haut de la Garenne children's home.[11]

He was married from 1948 to 1955, to Mary 'Molly' Josephine Hall,[12] but the relationship ended in divorce after she gave birth to the child of their lodger in 1955.[7]


Brambell died as a result of cancer at his home in Westminster,[13] London, aged 72 on 18 January 1985. He was cremated on 25 January 1985 at Streatham Park Cemetery, where his ashes were scattered.


The Curse of Steptoe, a BBC TV play about Brambell and his co-star Harry H. Corbett, was broadcast on 19 March 2008 on digital BBC channel BBC Four, featuring Phil Davis as Brambell. The first broadcast gained the channel its highest audience figures to date, based on overnight returns.[14]


  • Odd Man Out (1947) as tram passenger (uncredited)
  • The Cherry Orchard (1947; BBC live drama) as station master
  • Eyes that Kill (1947) as newspaper editor (uncredited)
  • Jassy (1947) as servant (uncredited)
  • Happy as Larry (1948) as First Tailor
  • Another Shore (1948) as Arthur Moore
  • Dry Rot (1956) as Tar Man
  • The Story of Esther Costello (1957) as man in pub (uncredited)
  • Serious Charge (1959) as Verger
  • Urge to Kill (1960) as Mr. Forsythe
  • The Sinister Man (1961) as Lock keeper
  • Flame in the Streets (1961) as Mr. Palmer senior
  • What a Whopper (1961) as Postman
  • The Boys (1962) as Robert Brewer Lavatory Attendant
  • In Search of the Castaways (1962) as Bill Gaye
  • The Small World of Sammy Lee (1963) as Harry
  • Crooks in Cloisters (1964) as Phineas
  • A Hard Day's Night (1964) as John McCartney (Paul McCartney's grandfather)
  • The Three Lives of Thomasina (1964) as Willie Bannock
  • Go Kart Go (1964) as Fred, Junkman
  • San Ferry Ann (1965) as Grandad
  • Where the Bullets Fly (1966) as Train Guard
  • Alice in Wonderland (1966) as White Rabbit
  • Witchfinder General (1968) (as Wilfred Brambell) as Master Loach
  • Lionheart (1968) as Dignett
  • Cry Wolf (1968) as Delivery man
  • Carry On Again Doctor (1969) as Mr. Pullen, a patient
  • Giacomo Casanova: Childhood and Adolescence (1969) as Malipiero
  • Some Will, Some Won't (1970) as Henry Russell
  • Steptoe and Son (1972) as Albert Steptoe
  • Steptoe and Son Ride Again (1973) as Albert Steptoe
  • Holiday on the Buses (1973) as Bert Thompson
  • All Creatures Great and Small (1978) S2E13, 'A Dog's Life,' as Dinsdale's Brother
  • The Adventures of Picasso (1979) as Alice B. Toklas
  • High Rise Donkey (1980) as Ben Foxcroft
  • The Island of Adventure (1982) as Uncle Jocelyn
  • The Terence Davies Trilogy (1983) as Robert Tucker (old age)
  • Sword of the Valiant (1984) as Porter


  1. ^The Times Obituary, 19 January 1985
  2. ^'A Hard Day's Night (1964)'.
  3. ^Terence Davies interview on the Extras of the DVD release. Davies claims that Brambell's performance won festival awards and achieved high critical acclaim
  4. ^'Death and Transfiguration (1983)'.
  5. ^'Scriptwriters Reject the 'Curse of Comedy', The Times, Published online 8 March 2008; retrieved 7 February 2011.
  6. ^'An Important Message from the Corbett Family'. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
  7. ^ abBarrie, David (19 August 2002). 'The dirty truth'. The Guardian. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  8. ^'Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender History Month UK'. Lgbthistorymonth. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
  9. ^'News in Brief: Conditional Discharge for Television Actor'. The Times. UK. p. 17. Wilfred Brambell . was conditionally discharged for a year and ordered to pay 25 guineas costs at West London Magistrates' Court yesterday for persistently importuning for an immoral purpose at Shepherd's Bush Green on 6 November
  10. ^Teeman, Tim. 'The Curse of Steptoe'. The Times. Brambell was arrested for importuning. 'I'm not a homosexual . The very thought disgusts me', he declared.
  11. ^Rayner, Gordon; Fairweather, Eileen (17 October 2012). 'Jimmy Savile: Steptoe and Son actor Wilfrid Brambell 'abused boys in Jersey' claims whistleblower'. The Telegraph. London. One of the alleged victims was a resident at the notorious Haut de la Garenne children’s home which was at the centre of a high-profile police investigation into historical child abuse on the island in 2008. He claimed to have been taken to the island’s main theatre, the Opera House, as a “treat” before being taken backstage to meet Brambell, who he accuses of molesting him in a back room.
  12. ^
  13. ^'Deaths England and Wales 1984–2006'.
  14. ^Tryhorn, Chris. 'Multichannel ratings – March 19: BBC4 breaks ratings record'. The Observer. Retrieved 24 May 2015.

Further reading[edit]

  • Brambell, (Henry) Wilfrid (1912–1985), David Parkinson, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004

External links[edit]

  • Wilfrid Brambell on IMDb
  • Wilfrid Brambell at the TCM Movie Database
  • Wilfrid Brambell biography at the BFI's Screenonline
  • The dirty truthGuardian feature on the Channel 4 TV documentary on Steptoe and Son.
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Contoh Soal Bahasa Inggris UTS SMA Kelas X Bahasa Inggris Text 1

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Answer the following questions correctly

After her husband had gone to work, Mrs. Richard sent her children to school and went upstairs to her bedroom. She was too excited to do any housework that morning, for in the evening she would be going to a fancy dress party with her husband. She intended to dress up as a
ghost and as she had made her costume the night before, she was impatient to try it on. Though the costume consisted only of a sheet, it was very effective. After putting it on, Mrs. Richard went downstairs. She wanted to find out whether it would be comfortable to wear.

Just as Mrs. Richards was entering the dining-room, there was a knock on front door. She knew it must be the baker. She had told him to come straight in if ever she failed to open the door and to leave the bread on the kitchen table. Not wanting to frighten the poor man, Mrs. Richards quickly hid in the small store-room under the stair. She heard the front door open and heavy footsteps in the hall. Suddenly the door of the store-room was opened and a man entered. Mrs. Richards realized that it must be the man from the Electricity Board who had come to read
the meter. She tried to explain the situation, saying ‘It’s only me’, but it was too late. The man let out a cry and jumped back several paces. When Mrs. Richards walked towards him, he fled, slamming the door behind him.

Contoh Soal UAS Bahasa Inggris Kelas 12 Semester Ganjil

1) Who had come to Richard’s house this morning?
a. The baker d. Her husband
b. The poor man e. The Electricity man
c. Her children

2) The man let out a cry and jump several paces
a. He was surprise to see someone coming
b. He was frighten to see something like ghost
c. He was surprise of seeing Mr. Richards
d. He was angry with Mrs. Richards
e. She had finished reading the meter of electricity

3) Where did Mrs. Richards hide?
a. In the kitchen d. In the store-room
b. In the bed room e. In front of the door
c. In the dining-room

4) What type of text is used by the writer?
a. Report
b. Procedure
c. Narrative
d. Descriptive
e. Recount

5. What is the purpose of the text?
a. To retell Mrs. Richards experience
b. To describe a ghost under stairs
c. To tell the story of haunted-house
d. To explain how Mrs. Richards daily activities are
e. To give information about Mrs. Richards houseworks

Contoh Soal Bahasa Inggris UTS SMA Kelas X Bahasa Inggris Text 2

One of the best known international radio services is the BBC World Service. The name BBC is short British Broadcasting Corporation. The world Service started in 1935 in order to provide news for Britain’s colonies overseas. Its headquarters in Bush House, a large building
in London. The world service Broadcasting programmes in 37 languages, including English. It broadcasting programmes in English 24 hours a day about 25 million listeners. Its programmes focus on news and current affairs, but it also has programmes on music, science, sports and drama. The BBC gets its now in two ways. Firstly, it has reporters in most countries of the world.

These people report what is happening in these countries. The second way, the BBC gets its news is by listening to other radio stations all over the world. The BBC listens to Indonesian
radio to find out what is happening in Indonesia. For example, if there is report of a head quake in Sumatra on Indonesian radio, the BBC will tell its reporter to go there
and collect news. The world Service is very useful for learners of English. They can listen to English and practice their listening skills. They can also note down the pronunciation, of words and even learn new words.

6. How long does BBC World Service broadcasting programmes in English?
It broadcasts ……hours a day.
a. 20
b. 24
c. 28
d. 26
e. 37

7. Its programmes focus on news and current affairs, but it also has programmes on music, science, sports and drama.
The word Its in the sentence refers to….
a. Bush house
b. BBC
c. Program
d. London
e. News

8. BBC World Service has programmes ….
a. science, music, advertisement, trade, drama
b. music, science, sport, movie, drama
c. sport, drama, science, music
d. music, advertisement, trade, music
e. drama, culture, science, sport, music

9. World Service deals mainly with ….
a. science and drama d. drama and news
b. news and music e. news and current affairs
c. current affairs and music

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10. If you look at the front of large, modern hospital, you may notice that there are two separate entrances. Booksmr. regan's educational website.

The underlined word means……….

a. Find out
b. See
c. Carry
d. Hear
e. Smell

Contoh Soal Bahasa Inggris UTS SMA Kelas X Bahasa Inggris Text 3

One day, Nasreddin was up on the roof of his house, mending a hole in the tiles. He had nearly finished, and he was pleased with his work. Suddenly, he heard a voice below call “Hello!” When he looked down, Nasreddin saw an old man in dirty clothes standing below. “What do you want?” asked Nasreddin. “Come down and I’ll tell you,” called the man. Nasreddin was annoyed, but he was a polite man, so he put down his tools. Carefully, he climbed all the way down to the ground.

“What do you want?” he asked, when he reached the ground. “Could you spare a little money for an old beggar?” asked the old man. Nasreddin thought for a minute. Then he said, “Come with me.” He began climbing the ladder again. The old man followed him all the way to the top. When they were both sitting on the roof, Nasreddin turned to the beggar. “No,” he said

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11. Why was Nasreddin on the roof of his house?
a. He was looking at the view
b. He was waiting for the old man
c. He was fixing the roof
d. He was resting
e. He was annoyed to the old man

12. Who was the old man?
a. Nasreddin’s father
b. Nasreddin’s friend
c. A roof seller
d. A roof-mender
e. A beggar

13. Why did Nasreddin go down the ladder?
a. He wanted to get away from his work
b. Because the beggar asked him to
c. He wanted to speak to the beggar
d. He wanted to take some roofs
e. He wanted to go with the beggar

14. The following sentences are true based on the text except…….
a. Nasreddin was mending his tiles when someone
called him
b. Nasreddin was happy with his work
c. Nasredin didn’t look down when the old man called
d. The old man asked some money to Nasreddin
e. Nasreddin asked the beggar to climb up the ladder

15. Nasreddin saw an old man in dirty clothes standing below… (line 4). The antonym of the underlined word (DIRTY) is…

a. Bad
b. Safe
c. Clean
d. Bright
e. Good

16. Today is Wednesday. 3 days ago was…

a. Monday
b. Tuesday
c. Thursday
d. Friday
e. Sunday

17. A : Hi Jhon How do you do? B : ……….
a. Hi
b. Hi, how are you
c. Hi, how do you do
d. Hi, I’m Fine
e. Hi, Very well

18. Hamid : …………….?
Ahmad : I’m 15 years old.
a. How are you?
b. How many age are you?
c.How old are you?
d. What is your old?
e. How’s life?

19. Jhon writes a letter to his father.
Past Tense of the sentence above is….

a. Jhon written a letter to his father yesterday
b. Jhon wrote a letter to his father now
c. Jhon wrote a letter to his father tomorrow
d. Jhon wrote a letter to his father last night
e. Jhon is writing a letter to his father now

20. Hamid : John, I’m so bored hearing Mr. Brown speech.

Minimanual Cto Cardiologia Pdf

Faiz : Why do you say so?

Hamid : His speech is too long.

From the dialogue we know that Hamid expresses


a. Happiness
b. Sadness
c. Boredom
d. Disappointed
e. Angry

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