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Ccna interview questions and answers for freshers beginners and experienced pdf free download.these are most frequently asked ccna interview questions. CCNA interview Questions:- 1) What is Routing? Routing is the process of finding a path on which data can pass from source to destination. Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching 200-120 Fourth Edition Michael Valentine Keith Barker 710596fm.indd i 12/3/13 1:34 PM. Share 56 valid Cisco CCNA Security 210-260 exam questions and Answers, 210-260 pdf Google Drive online download to enhance your skills.
CCNA CERTIFICATION Objective Questions Pdf Free Download:: 16. Refer to the exhibit. Router B receives a packet with a destination address of 10.16.1.97. What will router B do? Drop the packet B. Forward the packet via the route to 10.16.1.0 C. Forward the packet via the route to 10.16.1.64 D. Use the default route ANS:D 17. Acces PDF Ccna Exam Full Questions And Answers Doc CCNA version 6, CCNA version 7 with new questions lastest CCNA 1 (v5.1 + v6.0) Chapter 1 Exam Answers 2020 - 100% Full CCNA 1 v5.0.2 + v5.1 + v6.0 Chapter 1 Exam Answers 2019 2020 100% Updated Full Questions latest 2017 - 2018 Introduction to Networks. Free download PDF File CCNA v7.0 Exam.
CCNA Interview Questions for freshers experienced :-
1. What is Routing?
Routing is the process of finding a path on which data can pass from source to destination. Routing is done by a device called routers, which are network layer devices.
2. What is the purpose of the Data Link?
The job of the Data Link layer is to check messages are sent to the right device. Another function of this layer is framing.
3. What is the key advantage of using switches?
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When a switch receives a signal, it creates a frame out of the bits that were from that signal. With this process, it gains access and reads the destination address, after which it forwards that frame to the appropriate port. This is a very efficient means of data transmission, instead of broadcasting it on all ports.
4. When does network congestion occur?
Adventure storywatermelon gaming download. Network congestion occurs when too many users are trying to use the same bandwidth. This is especially true in big networks that do not resort to network segmentation.
5. What is a Window in networking terms?
A Window refers to the number of segments that are allowed to be sent from source to destination before an acknowledgment is sent back.
6. Does a bridge divide a network into smaller sections?
Not really. What a bridge actually does is to take the large network and filter it, without changing the size of the network.
7. Which LAN switching method is used in CISCO Catalyst 5000?
CISCO Catalyst 5000 uses the Store-and-forward switching method. It stores the entire frame to its buffers and performs a CRC check before deciding whether or not to forward that data frame.
8 . What is the role of the LLC sublayer?
The LLC sublayer stands for Logical Link Control. It can provide optional services to an application developer. One option is to provide flow control to the Network layer by using stop/start codes. The LLC can also provide error correction.
9. How does RIP differ from IGRP?
RIP relies on the number of hops in order to determine the best route to a network. On the other hand, IGRP takes consideration many factors before it decides the best route to take, such as bandwidth, reliability, MTU and hop count.
10. What are the different memories used in a CISCO router?
Different memories used in a CISCO router are:
- NVRAM stores the startup configuration file
- DRAM stores the configuration file that is being executed
- Flash Memory – stores the Cisco IOS.
11. What is BootP?
BootP is a protocol that is used to boot diskless workstations that are connected to the network. It is short for Boot Program. Diskless workstations also use BootP in order to determine its own IP address as well as the IP address of the server PC.
12. What is the function of the Application Layer in networking?
The Application Layer supports the communication components of an application and provides network services to application processes that span beyond the OSI reference model specifications. It also synchronizes applications on the server and client.
13. Differentiate User Mode from Privileged Mode
User Mode is used for regular task when using a CISCO router, such as to view system information, connecting to remote devices, and checking the status of the router. On the other hand, privileged mode includes all options that are available for User Mode, plus more. You can use this mode in order to make configurations on the router, including making tests and debugging.
14. What is 100BaseFX?
This is Ethernet that makes use of fiber optic cable as the main transmission medium. The 100 stands for 100Mbps, which is the data speed.
15. Differentiate full-duplex from half-duplex.
In full-duplex, both the transmitting device and the receiving device can communicate simultaneously, that is, both can be transmitting and receiving at the same time. In the case of half-duplex, a device cannot receive while it is transmitting, and vice versa.
16. What is MTU?
MTU stands for Maximum Transmission Unit. It refers to the maximum packet size that can be sent out onto the data line without the need to fragment it.
17. How does cut-through LAN switching work?
In Cut-Through LAN switching, as soon as the router receives the data frame, it will immediately send it out again and forward it to the next network segment after reading the destination address.
18. What is latency?
Latency is the amount of time delay that measures the point from which a network device receives a data frame to the time it sends it out again towards another network segment.
19. Utilizing RIP, what is the limit when it comes to the number of hops?
The maximum limit is 15 hop counts. Anything higher than 15 indicates that the network is considered unreachable.
20. What is a Frame Relay?
Frame Relay is a WAN protocol that provides connection-oriented communication by creating and maintaining virtual circuits. It has a high-performance rating and operates at the Data Link and Physical Layers.
21. How do you configure a Cisco router to route IPX?
The initial thing to do is to enable IPX routing by using the “IPX routing” command. Each interface that is used in the IPX network is then configured with a network number and encapsulation method.
22. What are the different IPX access lists?
There are two types of IPX access lists
Standard Access List can only filter the source or destination IP address. An Extended Access List uses the source and destination IP addresses, port, socket, and protocol when filtering a network.
23. Explain the benefits of VLANs.
VLANs allow the creation of collision domains by groups other than just physical location. Using VLANs, it is possible to establish networks by different means, such as by function, type of hardware, protocol, among others. This is a big advantage when compared to conventional LANs wherein collision domains are always tied to physical location.
24. What is subnetting?
Subnetting is the process of creating smaller networks from a big parent network. As a part of a network, each subnet is assigned some additional parameters or identifier to indicate its subnet number.
25. What are the advantages of a layered model in the networking industry?
A layered network offers many advantages. It allows administrators to make changes in one layer without the need to make changes in the other layers. Specialization is encouraged, allowing the network industry to make progress faster. A layered model also lets administrators troubleshoot problems more efficiently.
26. Why is UDP lease favored when compared to TCP?
It’s because UDP is unreliable and unsequenced. It is not capable of establishing virtual circuits and acknowledgments.
27. What are some standards supported by the Presentation layer?
Presentation layer supports many standards, which ensures that data is presented correctly. These include PICT, TIFF, and JPEG for graphics, MIDI, MPEG and QuickTime for Video/Audio.
28. What’s the easiest way to remotely configure a router?
In cases when you need to configure a router remotely, the most convenient is to use the Cisco AutoInstall Procedure. However, the router must be connected to the WAN or LAN through one of the interfaces.
29. What does the show protocol display?
- routed protocols that is configured on the router
- the address assigned on each interface
- the encapsulation method that was configured on each interface
30. How do you depict an IP address?
It can be done in three possible ways:
- using Dotted-decimal. For example: 192.168.0.1
- using Binary. For example: 10000010.00111011.01110010.01110011
- using Hexadecimal. For example: 82 1E 10 A1
31. How do you go to privileged mode? How do you switch back to user mode?
To access privileged mode, you enter the command “enable” on the prompt. In order to get back to user mode, enter the command “disable.”
32. What is HDLC?
HDLC stands for High-Level Data Link Control protocol. It is a propriety protocol of CISCO. It is the default encapsulation operated within CISCO routers.
33. How are internetworks created?
Internetworks are created when networks are connected using routers. Specifically, the network administrator assigns a logical address to every network that connects to the router.
34. What is Bandwidth?
Bandwidth refers to the transmission capacity of a medium. It is a measure of how much volume a transmission channel can handle, and it is measured in Kbps.
35. How does Hold-downs work?
Hold-downs prevent regular update messages from reinstating a downed link by removing that link from update messages. It uses triggered updates to reset the hold-down timer.
36. What are packets?
Packets are the results of data encapsulation. These are data that have been wrapped under the different protocols of the OSI layers. Packets are also referred to as datagrams.
37. What are segments?
Segments are sections of a data stream that comes from the upper OSI layers and ready for transmission towards the network. Segments are the logic units at the Transport Layer.
38. Give some benefits of LAN switching.
- allows full duplex data transmission and reception
- media rate adaption
- easy and efficient migration
39. What is Route Poisoning?
Route Poisoning is the process of inserting a table entry of 16 to a route, making it unreachable. This technique is used in order to prevent problems caused by inconsistent updates on a route.
40. How do you find valid hosts in a subnet?
The best way to go about this is to use the equation 256 minus the subnet mask. The hosts that are considered valid are those that can be found between the subnets.
41. What is DLCI?
DLCI, or Data Link Connection Identifiers, are normally assigned by a frame relay service provider in order to uniquely identify each virtual circuit that exists on the network.
42. Briefly explain the conversion steps in data encapsulation.
From a data transmitter’s point of reference, data from the end user is converted to segments. Segments are then passed on to the other layers and converted into packets or datagrams. These packets are then converted into frames before passing on to the network interface. Finally, frames are converted to bits prior to actual data transmission.
43. What are the different types of passwords used in securing a CISCO router?
There are actually five types of passwords that can be used. These enable secret, virtual terminal, console, and auxiliary.
44. Why is network segmentation a good idea when managing a large network?
For a network administration, segmenting a network would help ease network traffic and ensures that high bandwidth is made available at all times for all users. This translates to better performance, especially for a growing network.
45. What are the things that can be accessed in a CISCO router’s identifying information?
The hostname and the Interfaces. The hostname is the name of your router. The Interfaces are fixed configurations that refer to the router ports.
46. Differentiate Logical Topology from Physical Topology
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Logical Topology refers to the signal path through the physical topology. Physical Topology is the actual layout of the network medium.
47. What causes a triggered update to reset the router hold-down timer?
This may happen when the hold-down timer has already expired, or when the router received a processing task that incidentally was proportional to the number of links in the internetwork.
48. What is Full type of AD?
Regulatory Distance or it tends to be Advertised Distance.
49. Referring to the commands shown, what command must next be used on the branch router prior to traffic being sent to the router?
Hostname: Branch Hostname: Remote
PH# 123-6000, 123-6001 PH# 123-8000, 123-8001
SPID1: 32055512360001 SPID1: 32055512380001
SPID2: 32055512360002 SPID2: 32055512380002
ISDN switch-type basic ni
username Remote password cisco
IP address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
PPP authentication chap
ISDN spid1 41055512360001
ISDN spid2 41055512360002
dialer map IP 10.1.1.2 name Remote 1238001
dialer-list 1 protocol IP permit
Correct Answer: (config-if)# dialer-group 1
50. When configuring a router utilizing both physical and logical interfaces, what factor must be considered in determining the OSPF router ID?
A. The highest IP address of any physical interface.
B. The lowest IP address of any logical interface.
C. The middle IP address of any logical interface.
D. The lowest IP address of any physical interface.
E. The highest IP address of any interface.
F. The highest IP address of any logical interface.
G. The lowest IP address of any interface.
Correct Answer: A. The highest IP address of any physical interface.
51. What is the difference between the switch, hub, and router?
Hub has a single broadcast domain and collision domain. Anything comes in one port is sent out to the others.
It is a device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments. Switches have a single broadcast domain and multiple collision domains. It supports any packet protocol, as such it operates at the data link layer 2 and layer 3
Router is a device which transmits data packets along networks.
52. What is the size of IP address?
Size of IP address is 32 bit for IPv4 and 128 bit for IPv6.
53. What does data packets consist of?
A data packet consists of sender’s information, recipient’s information, and the data contained. It also has the numeric identification number that defines the packet number and order. When data is sent across the network, that information is segmented into data packets. In short, data packets carry the information and routing configuration for your transferred message.
54. What is DHCP stand for?
DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. DHCP assigns an IP address automatically to a given workstation client. You can also make static IPS for machines like printers, servers, routers, and scanners.
55. What BOOTP is?
BOOTP is a computer networking protocol used to deploy an IP address to network devices from a configuration server.
56. Explain why UDP is lease favored when compared to TCP?
It is because UDP is un-sequenced and unreliable. It is not capable of creating virtual circuits and acknowledgments
57. State the difference between dynamic IP and static IP addressing?
Dynamically IP addresses are provided by DHCP server, and static IP addresses are given manually.
58. Mention the ranges for the private IP?
Ranges for private IP are
- Class A: 10.0.0.0 – 10.0.0.255
- Class B: 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.0.0
- Class C: 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.0.255
59. In how many ways you can access the router?
You can access it in three ways
- Telnet (IP)
- AUX (Telephone)
- Console (Cable)
60. What is EIGRP?
EIGRP stands for Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol; it is a routing protocol designed by Cisco Systems. It is availed on a router to share routes with other routers within the same autonomous system. Unlike other routers like RIP, EIGRP only sends incremental updates, decreasing the workload on the router and the amount of data that needs to be transferred.
61. What is the matric of EIGRP protocol?
EIGRP protocol consists of
- Maximum Transmission Unit
62. What does the clock rate do?
Clockrate enables the routers or DCE equipment to communicate appropriately.
63. What command you must use if you want to delete or remove the configuration data that is stored in the NVRAM?
Erase startup- coding is the command you must use if you want to delete the configuration data that is stored in the NVRAM
64. What is BPDU Guard?
When an attacker is trying to send a BPDU packet with ‘0’ priority values by any tool then port will consider it as error invisible state. This is the working of BPDU Guard.
65. Explain the difference between half-duplex and full-duplex?
Full duplex means that the communication can occur in both directions at the same time, while half-duplex means that the communication can happen in one direction at a time.
66. What are the conversion steps of data encapsulation?
Conversion steps of data encapsulation includes
- Layer one, two and Three ( Application/presentation/session): Alphanumeric input from the user is converted into Data
- Layer Four (Transport): Data is converted into small segments
- Layer Five (Network): Data converted into packets or datagrams and Network header is added
- Layer Six (Data Link): Datagrams or packets are built into frames
- Layer Seven (Physical): Frames are converted into bits
67. What command do we give if router IOS is stuck?
Cntrl+Shift+F6 and X is the command we give if router IOS is stuck.
68. What is route poisoning?
Route poisoning is a technique of preventing a network from transmitting packets through a route that has become invalid.
69. What route entry will be assigned to dead or invalid route in case of RIP?
In the case of RIP table entry, 16 hops will be assigned to dead or invalid route making it unreachable.
70. What is TCP/IP Layer in OSI Layer?
Answer: TCP/IP Layer in OSI is used to mainly transport packets from one machine to another machine via seven types of layer. These seven types of layers are:
- Application layer: ex: Browser in the operating system
- Presentation layer: It will create a session for a particular packet
- Session Layer: Session time out
- Transport Layer
- Network layer
- Data link Layer
- Physical layer
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Starting February 24, 2020, the Cisco Certification Program will undergo significant changes. There will no longer be multiple different CCNA exams and certifications-only one comprehensive exam is provided. The code for the new exam is 200-301 CCNA, and its full name is “Cisco Certified Network Associate (200-301 CCNA).”
200-301 is a single exam and includes 120 questions. It covers a wide range of topics such as routing and switching, security, wireless networking, and even some programming concepts.
How is the new CCNA different from the old CCNA?
The new CCNA 200-301 implements and manages Cisco Solutions (CCNA), replacing all other areas, and by focusing automation and network programmability into its official curriculum, it is more focused on training skilled and industry-adapted IT network professionals.
The broad areas covered by the new CCNA are:
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· Security foundation
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In contrast, early CCNA routing and switching included:
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200-301 CCNA Practice Exam(2020.3.9)
Router A learns the same route from two different neighbors, one of the neighbor routers is an OSPF neighbor and the
other is an EIGRP neighbor.
What is the administrative distance of the route that will be installed in the routing table?
Correct Answer: B
Refer to the exhibit.
Which two tasks must be performed so that the Serial0/0/0 interfaces on the Atlanta and Washington routers can reach
one another? (Choose two.)
A. Configure the ipv6 route 2012::/126 2023::1 command on the Washington router.
B. Configure the ipv6 route 2023::/126 2012::1 command on the Atlanta router.
C. Configure the Ipv6 route 2012::/126 s0/0/0 command on the Atlanta router.
D. Configure the ipv6 route 2023::/126 2012::2 command on the Atlanta router.
E. Configure the ipv6 route 2012::/126 2023::2 command on the Washington router.
Correct Answer: CE
What is the primary effect of the spanning-tree portfast command?
A. it enables BPDU messages
B. It minimizes spanning-tree convergence time
C. It immediately puts the port into the forwarding state when the switch is reloaded
D. It immediately enables the port in the listening state
Correct Answer: A
Which statement correctly compares traditional networks and controller-based networks?
A. Only traditional networks offer a centralized control plane.
B. Only traditional networks natively support centralized management.
C. Traditional and controller-based networks abstract policies from device configurations.
D. Only controller-based networks decouple the control plane and the data plane.
Correct Answer: C
Two switches are connected and using Cisco Dynamic Trunking Protocol SW1 is set to Dynamic Desirable. What is the
result of this configuration?
A. The link is in a down state.
B. The link is in an error disables state
C. The link is becomes an access port.
D. The link becomes a trunk port.
Correct Answer: D
Refer to the exhibit. Which two statements about the interface that generated the output are true? (Choose two.)
B. the interface is error-diabled if packets arrive from a new unknown source address
C. it has dynamically learned two secure MAC addresses
D. it has dynamically learned three secure MAC addresses
E. the security violation counter increments if packets arrive from a new unknown source address
Correct Answer: CE
Which IPv6 address is the equivalent of the IPv4 interface loopback address 127.0.0.1?
Correct Answer: A
In IPv6 the loopback address is written as, ::1
This is a 128bit number, with the first 127 bits being ’0’ and the 128th bit being ’1’. It’s just a single address, so
could also be written as ::1/128.
An engineer must configure a WLAN using the strongest encryption type for WPA2- PSK. Which cipher fulfills the
Correct Answer: D
Which IPv6 address block sends packets to a group address rather than a single address?
Correct Answer: C
Refer to the exhibit.
A. It sends packets out of interface Fa0/2 only.
B. It sends packets out of interface Fa0/1 only.
C. It cannot send packets to 10.10.13 128/25.
D. It load-balances traffic out of Fa0/1 and Fa0/2.
Correct Answer: D
Which command is used to specify the delay time in seconds for LLDP to initialize on any interface?
A. lldp timer
B. lldp holdtimt
C. lldp reinit
D. lldp tlv-select
Correct Answer: D
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