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AASHTO Releases 7th Edition of its Highway & Street Design “Green Book”

[email protected]September 28, 20180 COMMENTS

The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials recently released the 7th edition of its “Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets” manual – commonly referred to as the “Green Book” – which is considered by many to be the pre-eminent industry guide to current highway and street design research and practices.

AASHTO said the latest edition of the “Green Book” presents an updated framework for geometric design that is more flexible, multimodal, and performance-based than in the past – providing guidance to engineers and designers who strive to make unique design solutions that meet the needs of all highway and street users on a project-by-project basis.

The group noted that not only are “traditional” functional classifications for roadways – such as local roads and streets, collectors, arterials, and freeways – contained within the Green Book, but so is an expanded set of new “contextual” classifications – such as rural, rural town, suburban, urban, and urban core – that will help better guide geometric design efforts.

On top of that, AASHTO said the first chapter of the new manual – entitled “New Framework for Geometric Design” – also introduces a “new approach” in terms of how functional and context classifications can be used together to create more “flexible and performance-based” designs for new projects as well as for existing roads.

2007 mustang transmission manual tre mac 6060. [A list of key revisions and updates to the new manual are available at: http://downloads.transportation.org/publications/GDHS-7_SummaryOfChanges.pdf.]

The “Green Book” is available to order in hard copy or as a downloadable PDF from the AASHTO Store at: https://store.transportation.org/item/collectiondetail/180. It can also be ordered at a discounted rate when purchased in a set that includes both the hard copy and downloadable PDF versions, the group noted.

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9/20/2011
The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
1
2012 KYTC/FHWA/ACEC-KY Partnering Conference Louisville, Kentucky September 11, 2012
Marshall Elizer, P.E., Gresham, Smith and Partners APWA Representative to AASHTO Technical Committee on Geometric Design

AASHTO Technical Committee on Geometric Design

Green Book History

Policies for use, design exceptions, flexibility

What’s changed in the 2011 Green Book

Questions & Answers The 2012 AASHTO Green Book
3

18 State Departments of Transportation

National Association of County Engineers

National League of Cities

American Public Works Association

Port Authority of NY, NJ

Federal Highway Administration
NY NJ Port Authority FHWA AASHTO APWA County Engineers National League of Cities 5`
Establishes the norm for professional practice  Incorporates research and proven methods  Supports public health and welfare (safety)  Is adopted in whole or in part by many authorities  Forms a level of quality and cost-effectiveness  A “code” of sorts 
The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
6
1984 1990 1994
1950 1952
2001
1954 1965 1957 1973
2004 7

Research proposed by State DOTs and FHWA

AASHTO Standing Committee on Research (SCOR) prioritizes research needs statements

Competitive, peer reviewed research process (NCHRP) administered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
8

Applies to new construction (projects on new alignment)

Applies to reconstruction

Does NOT apply to resurfacing, restoration or rehabilitation projects (“3R‟)* *FHWA has adopted the Green Book NHS freeway 3R projects
The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
for
9
 Federal,
state and local agencies establish “standards”  Should not refer to the Green Book as “AASHTO standards”  Should never refer to the Green Book as “safety standards”
The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
10

Federal, State and local agencies often have their own design manuals and policies

Some States and local agencies have adopted the Green Book as their geometric design standards or design manual

FHWA adopted the 2004 Green Book as the basis for minimum standards for the National Highway System (NHS) regardless of funding

A new rulemaking is anticipated for adoption of the 2011 edition The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
11
Until FHWA formally adopts the 2011 Green Book through formal rulemaking, the 2001 Green Book is the adopted standard (as specified in 23 CFR 625) for construction and reconstruction projects on the National Highway System.  Until the 2011 Green Book is formally adopted, it should only be considered guidance. As we have done in the past, we encourage divisions to not require formal design exceptions for the thirteen controlling criteria on these projects if States choose to use values from the 2011 Green Book that are less conservative than in the 2001 edition. 

Programmatic  National (NHS, Interstate)  State (non-NHS and nonfreeway RRR)  Local agency (off-system)

Project-specific criteria  Based on applicable highway function and design controls The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
13

Programmatic standards are applied to individual projects in establishing the:  Context and using it as a key design control  Geometric design controls (example: functional
classification, design vehicle, LOS)  Design criteria values to choose for the project standards (example: design speed, maximum grade)
LOS E - Source: TRB Highway Capacity Manual 2000 The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
14
  
AASHTO Policy is FHWA’s standard for projects on the NHS (regardless of funding) For new construction or reconstruction For “3R” type of work on a NHS freeway
The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
15

Interstate System warrants a higher benchmark for design

FHWA adopted the AASHTO “Design Standards for the Interstate System”

Green Book guidance and criteria apply if not otherwise described in the Interstate Policy The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
16
Addresses the unique design issues of determining appropriate cost-effective geometric design policies for very low-volume local roads  Covers both new and existing construction projects.  May be used in lieu of the Green Book for those facilities. 
The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
17

 

States or local agencies are responsible for establishing their own design standards for nonNHS projects Federal projects must be designed and built in accordance with approved design standards Many states follow similar procedures for both Federal and non-Federal projects, to allow flexibility in funding options Most states offer technical guidance to local agencies for design of Federal projects The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
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American with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines*
Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices
*Proposed to be superseded by Public Right-ofWay Accessibility Guidelines (PROWAG) The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
19
For non-freeway 3R projects, States may develop separate design criteria with approval by FHWA in lieu of using the Green Book or other criteria applicable for reconstruction  42 States have opted to do so  8 States have similar design programs to achieve this purpose 
The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
20
TRB Special Report 214 is a commonly used reference for 3R criteria  A “safety conscious” approach for improvement of safety performance  Evaluation of existing  Geometric design  Roadside conditions  Traffic operations  Pavement and drainage structures 
The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
21

Viewed as “best practices” but don’t rise to the same level of importance

Listed in Federal Aid Policy Guide (FAPG) NS 23 CFR 25, para. 16

Notable examples include:  AASHTO Roadside Design Guide 4th Edition  TRB Highway Capacity Manual
The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
22


A documented decision to design a highway element or a segment of a highway to a criterion that does not meet the minimum value established for that highway or project Allowance for exceptions is a valid aspect of the design process  Not an admission of failure  Not flawed design  A necessary and legitimate exercise of professional evaluation and engineering judgment The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
23

PART 625—DESIGN STANDARDS FOR HIGHWAYS § 625.3 Application. (f) Exceptions. (1) Approval …may be given on a project basis to designs which do not conform to the minimum criteria …for: (i) Experimental features on projects; and (ii) Projects where conditions warrant that exceptions be made. The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
24

FHWA policy recognizes it is impractical to require a formal design exception evaluation for every design element

Attention is focused on elements of most substantial importance to the safety and operational performance of any highway: what are commonly referred to as the…
“13 controlling criteria” The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
25
       
Design speed Lane width Shoulder width Bridge width Horizontal Superelevation Vertical curvature Grade
   

Stopping sight distance Cross slope Vertical clearance Horizontal clearance (lateral offset to obstruction) Structural capacity
The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
26
Balances risk tolerance with benefit/reward  Relies on awareness and knowledge  Identifies costs and impacts  Evaluates alternatives and options  Assesses risks (known and unknown)  Evaluates mitigation measures  Documentation and approval  Monitor in-service performance 
The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
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 

What is the degree to which a standard is being reduced? What is the “exposure” of the design exception  Length of exception segment  Traffic volumes of the facility  Duration of time the exception will be in place Where is the exception relative to other risk factors? The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
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Mitigate risks to the extent practical  Countermeasures that are related to adverse effects can reduce their likelihood, extent, and severity  Risks can also be mitigated by enhancing related elements 
The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
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Adherence to standard does not automatically demonstrate reasonable care  Deviation from standard does not automatically demonstrate negligence  A structured process for evaluating, approving and documenting the rationale for key design decisions is necessary to address professional responsibility and tort liability 
The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
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Joint effort of:  FHWA  AASHTO  Non-traditional partners

Central theme of Thinking Beyond the Pavement Conference in 1998
Source: Jane Garvey, Acting Administrator, FHWA 1997 The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
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AASHTO “A Guide for
Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design” The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
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Facilitates program/project delivery and achieving performance goals  Allows consideration of a wider range of design options and alternatives to fit conditions  Enables more cost-effective designs that improve safety and efficiency  Promotes CSS principles (an FHWA and AASHTO joint priority) 
The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
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Recognizes that flexibility is a necessary and desired aspect of the design process  Uses a risk assessment and risk management approach for all aspects of the design  Apply performance criteria to evaluate flexible design decisions, as well as condition criteria  Understand the risks and consequences for design decisions 
The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
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Tradeoffs routinely considered:  Economics (agency or user costs/benefits) Flush  Stakeholder or agency versus preferences Raised  Environmental and social impacts or enhancements  Capacity, delay or speed  Ease of maintenance Permissive versus Protected The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
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“Highway engineers, as designers, strive to meet the needs of highway users while maintaining the integrity of the environment. Unique combinations of design controls and constraints call for unique design solutions… “..Sufficient flexibility is permitted to encourage independent designs tailored to particular situations.” Source: Foreword, p. xli, 2011 Edition The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
36
      
Many dimensions and values are shown as ranges Many criteria described as “guidelines” or “typical” Many concepts are not dimensioned and discussed only in functional terms In many cases, choices are offered for how to complete a design Solutions or concepts not specifically included are not precluded Specific solutions are not mandated Designer judgment is implied or explicitly suggested The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
37
“The ability to develop a contextsensitive solution by working within and sometimes outside design criteria, while maintaining the safety and operational integrity of the highway, requires a broad and deep understanding of the operational effects of highway geometry.” Source: A Guide to Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design, AASHTO 2004, p. 50 The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
38
“The intent of this policy is to provide guidance to the designer by referencing a recommended range of values for critical dimensions…. …it is not intended to be a detailed design manual that could supersede the need for the application of sound principles by the knowledgeable design professional…. …minimum values are either given or implied by the lower value in a given range of values. The larger values within the ranges will normally be used where the social, economic, and environmental (S.E.E.) impacts are not critical.‟ 2011 Green Book Foreword, pg xli The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
39

Establishing the project context and using it as a key design control

Determining appropriate design controls (example: functional classification, design vehicle, LOS)

Choosing appropriate design criteria for the project standard (example: design speed)

Selecting optimum design values within a range of acceptable values (example: curve radii)
LOS E - Source: TRB Highway Capacity Manual 2000
The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
40
Rural  Freeways 12 ft  Arterials 10 to 12 ft  Collectors 10 to 12 ft; 9-ft lanes can be used for low volume, low speed reconstructed roads with acceptable performance  Low volume 9 to 11 ft
Urban  Freeways 12 ft  Arterials 10 to 12 ft  Collectors 10 to 12 ft  Local streets 10 to 12 ft; 9-ft lanes can be used in residential areas where the available or attainable width of rightof-way imposes severe limitations MYTH: The Green Book does NOT require 12 ft lanes The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
41
Advantages of narrow lanes on urban arterials:  Allow additional lane(s) in areas with constrained right-of-way  Facilitate use of a wider outside lane or a designated bike lane  Facilitate greater offset to parking lane  Facilitate a flush or raised median  Produce shorter pedestrian crossing times  More economical to construct  Contribute to lower speeds The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
42
AASHTO/FHWA Webinar on Geometric Design
http://environment.transportation.org/center/products_pr ograms/understanding_flexibility_green_book.aspx The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
43
The New Green Books Are Here!
The 2012 AASHTO Green Book
46

NCHRP 20-07, Task 171: Identification of Conflicts with
AASHTO Publications Related to Clear Zone  Inconsistencies between Green Book and the
Roadside Design Guide, etc.  Definitions, terminology, policy
▪ ‘Horizontal Clearance to Obstruction’ renamed to ‘Lateral Offset to Obstruction’ ▪ ‘Recovery area’ replaced by ‘clear zone’
• ‘Must’ or ‘shall’ only used in the case of a legal requirement • ‘Where possible’ replaced by ‘where practical’ in most cases ( Almost anything is possible )
• ‘improves safety’ or ‘safe’ replaced by ‘reduces the frequency and severity of crashes’ replaces • Updated Photos
 Numbered
sections and subsections
 Chapter-specific
page #’s  e.g. Page 3-141
 Chapter
#’s in the headers
 Chapters
5-8 organized consistently
The 2012 AASHTO Green Book
49

Emphasis on designer consideration of the “context” of the project area [1.3.3 & 1.3.5]

Highlights the flexibility available to encourage choosing design criteria: [pgs 1-9 thru 1-13]  Consistent with the context of the project  Needs and value of the community  With respect to economic limitations

Rural: “Minor arterials therefore constitute routes that should provide for relatively high travel speeds and minimum interference to through movement consistent with the context of the project area and considering the range or variety of users” [pg 1-9]

Urban: “For facilities within the subclass of other principal arterials in urban areas, mobility is often balanced against the need to provide direct access as well as the need to accommodate pedestrians, bicyclists, and transit users” [pg 1-11]

“The first step in the design process is to define the function that the facility is to serve and the context of the project area” [pg 1-13]

“…the designer should keep in mind the overall purpose that the street or highway is intended to serve, as well as the context of the project area” [pg 1-13]

“Arterials are expected to provide a high degree of mobility for the longer trip length. Therefore, they should provide as high an operating speed and level of service as practical within the context of the project area” [pg 1-12]
“Emphasis is placed on the joint use of transportation corridors by pedestrians, cyclists and public transit vehicles. Designers should recognize the implications of this sharing of the transportation corridors and are encouraged to consider not only vehicular movement, but also movement of people, distribution of goods, and provision of essential services. A more comprehensive transportation program is hereby emphasized.‟ Green Book Foreword, pg xlii
Design Vehicles*  Added SU-40 single unit truck (3-axle) [pg 2-12]  Removed WB-50 semitrailer truck and replaced with WB-62 [pg 2-23]  Added WB-92B – Rocky Mountain Double [pg 2-26] * NCHRP Report 505: Review of Truck Characteristics as Factors In Roadway Design
Selection of Design Speed:  “Above-minimum design values criteria for specific design elements should be used, where practical, particularly on high-speed facilities. [pg 2-54] 
On lower speed facilities, use of aboveminimum design criteria may encourage travel at speeds higher than the design speed.” [pg 2-55]

Pedestrian walking speeds changed to be consistent with the MUTCD [pgs 2-79,80]  3.5 ft/sec for pedestrian clearance (don’t walk)  Total pedestrian crossing time based on 3.0
ft/sec 
References added to the PROWAG [pgs 2-78, 2-81]
   
“Principles for Acceptable Degrees of Congestion” content removed [pg 2-60] Now referenced to the TRB Highway Capacity Manual Multi-modal levels of service in HCM 2010 Consideration for higher truck power-to-weight ratios and speed profile calculation [pg 3-114]

References to “Safety” are commonly changed to “crash frequency and severity”

Updated safety resources added references to the AASHTO Highway Safety Manual, the NCHRP Report 500 series, and the IHSDM [pg 2-85]

NCHRP 20-07, Task 171: Identification of Conflicts with AASHTO Publications Related to Clear Zone  Inconsistencies between Green Book, RDG,
etc.
Functional Class
2004 Green Book Urban & Suburban LOS
2011 Green Book Urban & Suburban LOS
Freeway Arterial Collector Local
C C D D
C or D C or D D D

 
“Lane widths may vary from 10 to 12 ft... Lane widths of 10 ft... may be used in highly restricted more constrained areas where truck and bus volumes are relatively low and speeds are less than 35 mph having little or no truck traffic. Lane widths of 11 ft... are used quite extensively for urban arterial street designs. The 12-ft lane widths are most desirable and should be used, where practical, on higher speed, free-flowing, principal arterials.”
2004 Green Book: “Passenger vehicles parked adjacent to a curb will occupy, on the average, approximately 7 ft... of street width. Therefore, the total parking lane width for passenger cars should be 10 to 12 ft...” 2011 Green Book: “Passenger vehicles parked adjacent to a curb will occupy, on the average, approximately 7 ft... of street width. Therefore, the total parking lane width for passenger cars should be 7 to 10 ft...”
 


Stopping Sight Distance tables clarified whether on level, wet weather, or grades [pgs 3-4, 3-5] Passing Sight Distance for Two-Lane Highways revised based on NCHRP Report 605* (now consistent with MUTCD) [pgs 3-8, 3-9] Enhanced height of object discussion in the criteria for measuring sight distance rather than in discussion of its need [pg 3-15] Optimal passing lane flow rates and design length values added [pg 3-135] * NCHRP Report 605: Passing Sight Distance for Two-Lane Highways

2+1 Roadways design guidance added based on NCHRP Research Digest 275 [pgs 3-132,135]

Revised method for “Lane Drop Taper Length” for passing lane sections is consistent with MUTCD [pg 3-134]

Design controls for crest vertical curves updated based on passing sight distance [3-157]

Lighting – updated to conform to the AASHTO Roadway Lighting Guide and IESNA publications [3-172]

Discussions of drainage, fencing and noise barriers moved to Chapter 4
2004
2011


Traveled Way definition revised to be consistent with Roadside Design Guide, i.e., exclude shoulders/bicycle lanes [pg 4-1] Lane widths: “In urban areas where pedestrian crossings, right-of-way, or existing development become stringent controls on lane widths, the use of 3.3-m [11-ft] lanes may be appropriate.” [pg 4-7]

Rumble Strip section added based on State experience and TRB/FHWA research (Section 4.5, pg. 4-14)
FHWA Technical Advisory T5040.35 Roadway Rumble Strips NCHRP Report 641 - Guidance for the Design and Application of Shoulder and Centerline Rumble Strips



Clear zone and lateral offset discussion provided in a more consistent format with the Roadside Design Guide [pg 4-15] Curbs: for high-speed (≥ 50 mph) use sloping curbs; 4-in in rural or in urban/suburban areas with infrequent access points or streets, 6-in in urban/suburban areas with frequent access [pg 4-16] Sidewalks and Curb Ramps – updated discussion consistent with the AASHTO Pedestrian Guide and the PROWAG [pgs 4-57, 4-61]

 
Discussion of driveway profiles to accommodate vehicle underclearance, pedestrians, and drainage. References NCHRP Report 659 Guide for Geometric Design of Driveways [pg 4-48] Use of diagonal curb ramps discouraged [pg 4-62] Added discussion of on-street back-in, head-out diagonal parking [pg 4-72]

Updated reference to AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications [pgs 5-7, 5-19]

Clear zone and lateral offset discussion to be consistent with Roadside Design Guide [pgs 5-8, 5-20]

Added discussion of Level of Service in Rural and Urban areas [pgs 5-3, 5-12]


Updated references to AASHTO Roadway Lighting Design Guide and ANSI/EISNA publications [pg 5-22] Added reference to NCHRP Report 659: Guide for the Geometric Design of Driveways [5-19]

Added discussion about selection of LOS for collectors [pg 6-12]

Added roadside design discussion to clarify clear zone and lateral offset [pg 6-17]

Pedestrian, bicycle and sign structures should provide 15 ft... minimum vertical clearance [pg 6-17]
Rural section additions: Added discussion about use of minimum radii and lengths of horizontal curves [pg 7-3]  Medians: “…multilane undivided facilities should be discouraged except where provision of a median or turn lane is not practical” [pg 7-12] 
Urban section additions: Characteristics: “The type of arterial selected is closely related to the level of service desired for all users and urban context in which it is located.” [pg 7-26]  LOS selections [pg 7-28] 
Added discussion about:  Relationship between Design Speed and lane widths [10 ft... < 35 mph] [7-29]  Benefits of parking lanes [7-34]  Benefits of medians to pedestrians in urban areas [7-31]  Offset left turn lanes when selecting median widths [7-31]
Added discussion on superelevation rates considering snow/ice, viaducts, and section consistency [pg 8-3]  Roadside Design: reorganized Clear Zone and Lateral Offset [pg 8-5]  Shoulder width: where DDHV for truck traffic exceeds 250 veh/h, a paved shoulder width of 12 ft... “should be considered” [previous “should be 12 ft...’] [pg 8-3] 
Added or updated discussions of:  Intersection capacity based on HCM [pg 9-7]  Roundabouts [pgs 9-21, 9-167]  Continuous Flow Intersections [pg 9-160]  Expanded discussion of Indirect Left Turns and U-turns [pg 9-162] 

Based on TRB Access Management Manual:  Definition of Functional Area [pg 9-2]  Components of Auxiliary Lanes [pg 9-124]  Deceleration Length Discussion [pg 9-126]

Added design criteria for double/triple left turn lanes based on NCHRP 505 [pg 9-139]
  
Updated Exhibits and discussion for Directional/Semi-directional Interchanges Included an Exhibit for Diamond Interchange with Roundabout Intersection Control [10-42] Added discussion about:  Roundabout ramp terminals  Ramp metering [10-128]  Two-lane loop ramps [10-90]  Left-side ramp terminals [1-=103]  Vertical clearance above RR’s
[10-22]
Terminology for Single-Point Diamond Interchange (SPDI) [previously SPUI] [10-42]  Ramp shoulders and lateral offset: “The left and right shoulder widths may be reversed if needed to provide additional sight distance.” [10-102]  Procedure for measuring the distances between ramp terminals is given in the HCM 2010 new weaving methodology (measured between the painted noses) [10-106] 
 Available now at www.transportation.org Format
Non-AASHTO Member Pricing
AASHTO Member Pricing
Hard Copy Format
$240
$200
Downloadable Format
$240
$200
Single-User Web-Based Format
$192
$160
Five-User Web-Based Format
$864
$720
Ten-User Web-Based Format
$1,536
$1,280
Contact AASHTO for bulk pricing discounts The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
80
The 2012 AASHTO Green Book
81
Marshall Elizer, P.E., PTOE Gresham, Smith and Partners 511 Union St # 1400 Nashville, TN 37219-1710 (615) 770-8100 [email protected]
Jeff C. Jones, P.E. Asst. Chief Engr/Design Tennessee DOT Suite 700, James K. Polk Bldg. Nashville, TN 37243-1402 (615) 741-2831 [email protected] The 2012 AASHTO Green Book
82
9/20/2011
The New AASHTO Green Book – What's New in Geometric Design
83