17verbs (present Tense)sindarin Lessons

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INTRODUCTION

Today we look at the basic tenses we need to talk about the present, past and future. Present Simple Present. Base verb (+ es/es for third person): I watch the news every day. Present Continuous. Am/is/are + present participle: I am watching the news. Present Perfect. Has/have + past participle: I have watched the news already. Present Perfect. It is even possible to use the present tense with future reference: 'He comes tomorrow.' For this reason, linguists may refer to the English 'present' tense as a non-past tense instead: It actually covers both present and future. These somewhat asymmetric features of English are avoided in Tolkien's Elvish. Languages like Quenya and Sindarin do.

  • Past Tense Of Read, Past Participle Form of Read V1 V2 V3 Past Tense of Read In today’s lesson, we will give the meaning of the verb ‘read’, Past Simple Tense, and Part Participle Tense, as well as an example. If you’re ready, let’s start Meaning The verb of read means that understand the meaning of written or printed words or symbols.
  • Lesson 13 - Prepositions (part one) Lesson 14 - Prepositions (part two) Lesson 15 - 'In' and Nasal mutation Lesson 16 - Possessive pronouns Lesson 17 - Verbs (present tense) Lesson 18 - Verbs (past tense, parts 1-4) Lesson 19 - Verbs (past tense, parts 5-7) Lesson 20 - Verbs (future tense) Lesson 21 - Verbs (conditional) Lesson 22 - Irregular verbs.
17 verbs (present tense)sindarin lessons lesson

The mixed conjugation verbs appear on the outside to look like A-stems, yet they behave like both A-stems and I-stems. This group of verbs seems to include most verbs with a single consonant before the final “-a”, as long as the consonant is not –th- or –ch- which represented older clusters.

The verbs that appear to belong to this group are:

brona “survive”
fara “hunt”
gala “grow”
laba “hop”
nara “tell”
pada “walk”
rada “make a way”
aphada “follow”
athrada “traverse”
gannada “play a harp”
lathrada “eavesdrop”
limmida “moisten”
nimmida “whiten”
tangada ” make firm”

CONJUGATION

The infinitive, present tense, future tense, imperative, active participle and gerund all seem to be conjugated like regular A-STEM VERBS. Let’s use Tangada- as an example:

Infinitive: Tangado “to make firm”
Present tense: Tangada “makes firm”
Future tense: Tangadatha “will make firm”
Imperative: Tangado “make firm!”
Active participle: Tangadol “making firm”
Gerund: Tangadad “making firm” (n)

The 3rd person singular past tense, passive participle, and the perfective active participle seems to be conjugated like I-stems as if the final “-a” of the verb did not exist. Again let’s use Tangada- as an example:

Past tense: Tangant “made firm” (nasal infix! Lesson 11)
Passive participle: Tangannen “stopped”
Perfective Active participle: Tengediel “having stopped” (adj)

MORE ON THE PAST TENSE, PERFECTIVE ACTIVE PARTICIPLE, AND PASSIVE PARTICIPLE

The past tense, perfective active participle, and the passive participle of these verbs should be conjugated like normal I-STEM VERBS except for the following.

In the 3rd person Past Tense, when the verb naturally has a long vowel, this vowel is probably shortened in the mixed conjugation.

17verbs (present Tense)sindarin Lessons

Síla > Sill
Aníra > Anirn
Tíra > Tirn

For all other persons in the Past Tense, the connecting vowel -e- is added to 3rd per. sing. past tense (instead of -i-)before the pronominal ending, triggering intervocalic changes as in the I-Stems. When the verb naturally has a long vowel, it is probably shortened for the past tense.

In the Perfective Active Participle, when there is a long vowel in the verb, it cannot naturally be lengthened any more than it is when forming the perfective active participle, so we must assume that is stays long.

Síla “shine” > Síliel “having shone”

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17 Verbs (present Tense)sindarin Lessons 4th Grade

• Mixed conjugating seems to occur in most verbs with a single consonant before the final “–a”
• The infinitive, present tense, future tense, imperative, active participle and gerund all seem to be conjugated like regular A-STEM verbs
• The 3rd person past tense, passive participle, and the perfective active participle seems to be conjugated like I-STEMS as if the final “-a” of the verb did not exist … other person past tenses are formed by adding -e- and the pronominal ending
• Long vowels are probably shortened in the past tense of mixed conjugation
• Verbs that contain a long vowel remain long in the perfective active participle